- fac. der geesteswetenschappen ( gesch/oudh/k&c )
Philip Verhagen graduated in Physical Geography at the VU University Amsterdam in 1989, and has worked in commercial archaeology in the Netherlands since 1992 as a specialist in GIS and archaeological computing with RAAP (1992-2005) and ACVU-HBS (2005-2008). From 1992 to 1998 he participated in the European Union-funded Archaeomedes and Rio Aguas projects, doing geo-database management and spatial analysis for a number of study areas in France (Rhône Valley) and Spain (Vera Basin). Both projects analyzed the long term development of settlement and land use dynamics, for which GIS proved to be a powerful and efficient tool.
From the mid-1990s on he has actively participated in the development of predictive modelling for archaeological heritage management in the Netherlands. This eventually resulted in the publication of his thesis, completed at Leiden University in 2007. In this thesis he has explored and developed a number of methods and techniques for building and testing predictive models.
From around 2001, he has also worked on issues concerning the reliability of archaeological survey techniques for detecting archaeological sites, especially core sampling and (more recently) trial trenching. This research has resulted in national guidelines for optimal survey strategies in Dutch archaeological heritage management.
From 2009-2012, Dr. Verhagen worked on a post-doctoral research project on predictive modelling (VENI grant awarded by NWO, the Dutch National Science Foundation), developing a new methodology to derive relevant socio-cultural factors for predictive modelling from environmental and archaeological (settlement) data, in particular parameters concerning visibility, accessibility and social memory, and by analyzing the surroundings of settlements rather than just their position in the landscape.
Currently, he works on a new post-doctoral project (VIDI grant awarded by NWO, the Dutch National Science Foundation, running from 2012-2017), together with PhD-students Jamie Joyce and Mark Groenhuijzen. The project aims to apply spatial dynamical modelling to reconstruct and understand the development of the cultural landscape in the Dutch part of the limes zone during the Early and Middle Roman period (15 BC – 270 AD). It focuses on modelling economic and spatial relations between the Roman army and the local population, in particular the interaction between agriculture, animal husbandry and wood management, and the related development of settlement patterns and transport networks in the area.
Since 2014, he teaches the Research Design II course in the RMA programme of the Faculty of Humanities, together with dr. Janet van der Meulen. Within the ACASA Master programme, he is teaching the tutorial GIS and Archaeology together with Jitte Waagen MA (University of Amsterdam).
From 2011-2016, he was Publication Officer of CAA (Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology). In this capacity, he was responsible for the publication of the proceedings of the annual international CAA conference.
Predictive modelling, GIS and spatial analysis, statistics, agent-based modelling, digital archaeology, archaeological survey, archaeological heritage management, landscape archaeology
Current research project
The project 'Finding the limits of the Limes' aims to apply spatial dynamical modelling to reconstruct and understand the development of the cultural landscape in the Dutch part of the Roman limes zone.
The Roman conquest and occupation of the Lower Rhine region resulted in a system of fortifications of the Rhine border (the limes). The garrisons needed provisions like food and building materials. Where these came from and how they were managed is only known in general terms. Great uncertainties exist on the organisation of the socio-economic system, its relation to the military presence in the area, the logistics involved, and its impact on land use.
Spatial dynamical modelling can assist in interpreting past landscape development. It is a computer technique for building rule-based models that will simulate spatial processes - like the development of land use - through time. In this way, cause-and-effect chains will become more transparent. It can also tell us whether developments inevitably lead in a certain direction (path dependence), and if different scenarios produce similar outcomes (equifinality).
The Dutch limes zone offers a rich set of archaeological and palaeo-environmental data. We want to use these data and spatial dynamical modelling to set up scenarios of resource management along the limes, and test these against the archaeological evidence. What was needed to maintain the border garrisons? How did the Romans organize production, transport and distribution of goods? How did the local population respond? How did it influence landscape development and settlement pattern?
The modelling will result in scenarios of cultural landscape development using different theoretical perspectives and focusing on the interaction of natural, economic and socio-cultural factors. The plausibility of these scenarios can be assessed by comparing the modelling results to the archaeological record. We will also formulate best practices for spatial dynamical modelling in archaeology that will benefit other researchers.
More information can be found on http://limeslimits.wordpress.com
Publications since 2012
See also dr. Verhagen's profile on academia.edu.
In press. P. Verhagen. Predictive modelling. In: López Varela, S.L. (ed.): SAS Encyclopedia of Archaeological Sciences. Wiley-Blackwell.
In press. K. Haneca, S. Debruyne, S. Vanhoutte, M. Vermeyen, A. Ervynck and P. Verhagen. 'Simulating trial trenches for archaeological prospection: assessing the variability in intersection rates.' Archaeological Prospection.
In preparation. P. Verhagen. 'Spatial analysis in archaeology: moving into new territories' In: M. Forbriger, O. Bubenzer and C. Siart (eds.): Digital Geoarchaeology. Springer.
2016. P. Verhagen, I. Vossen, M.R. Groenhuijzen & J. Joyce. Now you see them, now you don't: Defining and using a flexible chronology of sites for spatial analysis of Roman settlement in the Dutch river area. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 10, 309-321, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.10.006
2016. L. Nuninger, P. Verhagen, F. Bertoncello and A. Castrorao Barba. 'Estimating “land use heritage” to model changes in archaeological settlement patterns'. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (LAC2014 Proceedings), http://dx.doi.org/10.5463/lac.2014.60
2016. P. Verhagen, J. Joyce and M. Groenhuijzen. 'Modelling the dynamics of demography in the Dutch Roman limes zone.' Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (LAC2014 Proceedings), http://dx.doi.org/10.5463/lac.2014.62
2016. J. Joyce and P. Verhagen. 'Simulating the farm: computational modelling of cattle and sheep herd dynamics for the analysis of past animal husbandry practices.' Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (LAC2014 Proceedings), http://dx.doi.org/10.5463/lac.2014.59
2016 M.R. Groenhuijzen and P. Verhagen. 'Testing the Robustness of Local Network Metrics in Research on Archeological Local Transport Networks'. Frontiers in Digital Humanities 3:6, http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fdigh.2016.00006
2016 P. Verhagen, L. Nuninger, F. Bertoncello and A. Castrorao Barba. ‘Estimating the “memory of landscape” to predict changes in archaeological settlement patterns’. In: Campana, S., R. Scopigno, G. Carpentiero and M. Cirillo (eds.): CAA 2015. Keep the Revolution Going. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 623-636.
2016 C. Chiarcos, M. Lang and P. Verhagen. ‘IT-assisted Exploration of Excavation Reports. Using Natural Language Processing in the archaeological research process’. In: Campana, S., R. Scopigno, G. Carpentiero and M. Cirillo (eds.): CAA 2015. Keep the Revolution Going. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 87-94.
2015 M.R. Groenhuijzen and P. Verhagen. ‘Exploring the dynamics of transport in the Dutch limes’. eTopoi Journal for Ancient Studies Special Volume 4, pp. 25-47.
2015 J. Kolen, C. Crumley, G.J. Burgers, K. von Hackwitz, P. Howard, K. Karro, M. de Kleijn, D. Löwenborg, N. van Manen, H. Palang, T. Plieninger, A. Printsmann, H. Renes, H. Scholten, P. Sinclair, M. Veldi and P. Verhagen. ‘HERCULES: Studying long-term changes in Europe’s landscapes’. Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 45, 209-219.
2015 M. de Cet, R. Duttmann, V. Lull, R. Micó, J. Müller, C. Rihuete Herrado, R. Risch and P. Verhagen. ‘Agricultural Territories and GIS Modelling: the Long-Term Case Study of Menorca’. In: Traviglia, A. (ed.), Across Space and Time. Papers from the 41st Annual Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Perth, 25-28 March 2013. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, pp. 224-238.
2014 S. Polla and P. Verhagen (eds.). Computational Approaches to Movement in Archaeology. Theory, practice and interpretation of factors and effects of long term landscape formation and transformation. (Topoi Berlin Studies of the Ancient World, Volume 23). De Gruyter, Berlin.
2014 P. Verhagen, S. Polla and I. Frommer. `Finding Byzantine junctions with Steiner trees'. In: S. Polla and P. Verhagen (eds.), Computational Approaches to Movement in Archaeology. Theory, practice and interpretation of factors and effects of long term landscape formation and transformation. (Topoi Berlin Studies of the Ancient World, Volume 23). De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 73-97.
2013 P. Verhagen. ‘Site discovery and evaluation through minimal interventions: core sampling, test-pits and trial trenches’. In: C. Corsi, B. Slapšak and F. Vermeulen (eds.), Good practice in archaeological diagnostics. Non-invasive survey of complex archaeological sites. Springer, New York, pp. 206-229.
2013 P. Verhagen, E. Rensink, M. Bats and P. Crombé. ‘Establishing discovery probabilities of lithic artefacts in Paleolithic and Mesolithic sites with core sampling’. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, 240-247.
2013 P. Verhagen, L. Nuninger, F.-P. Tourneux, F. Bertoncello and K. Jeneson. ‘Introducing the human factor in predictive modelling: a work in progress.’ In: G. Earl, T. Sly, A. Chrysanthi, P.Murrieta-Flores, C. Papadopoulos, I. Romanowska and D. Wheatley (eds.), Archaeology in the Digital Era. Papers from the 40th Annual Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Southampton, 26-29 March 2012. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, pp. 379-388.
2013 P. Verhagen, T. Brughmans, L. Nuninger and F. Bertoncello. ‘The long and winding road. Combining least cost paths and network analysis techniques for settlement location analysis and predictive modelling’. In: G. Earl, T. Sly, A. Chrysanthi, P.Murrieta-Flores, C. Papadopoulos, I. Romanowska and D. Wheatley (eds.), Archaeology in the Digital Era. Papers from the 40th Annual Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Southampton, 26-29 March 2012. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, pp. 357-366.
2013 P. Verhagen ‘On the road to nowhere? Least cost paths, accessibility and the predictive modelling perspective’. In: F. Contreras, M. Farjas and F.J. Melero (eds.), CAA 2010. Fusion of Cultures. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, Granada, Spain, April 2010 (BAR International Series 2494). Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 383-389.
2013 P. Verhagen and L. Drăguţ. 'Discovering the Dutch mountains. An experiment with automated landform classification for purposes of archaeological predictive mapping.' In: F. Contreras, M. Farjas and F.J. Melero (eds.), CAA 2010. Fusion of Cultures. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, Granada, Spain, April 2010 (BAR International Series 2494). Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 213-216.
2012 P. Verhagen and L. Drăguţ. ‘Object-based landform delineation and classification from DEMs for archaeological predictive mapping’. Journal of Archaeological Science 39, 698-703.
2012 P. Verhagen and T.G. Whitley. 'Integrating Archaeological Theory and Predictive Modeling. A Live Report from the Scene'. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 19, 49-100.
2012 L. Nuninger, P. Verhagen, F.-P. Tourneux, F. Bertoncello and K. Jeneson. ‘Contextes spatiaux et transformation du système de peuplement: approche comparative et predictive.’ In: F. Bertoncello and F. Braemer (eds.), Variabilités environnementales, mutations sociales: nature, intensités, échelles et temporalités des changements. APDCA, Antibes, pp. 231-246.
2012 P. Verhagen. 'Biting off more than we can chew? The current and future role of digital techniques in landscape archaeology.’ In: S.J. Kluiving and E. Guttman-Bond (eds.), Landscape archaeology between art and science. From a Multi- to an Interdisciplinary Approach. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, pp. 309-320.
2012 P. Verhagen and K. Jeneson. 'A Roman Puzzle. Trying to find the Via Belgica with GIS'. In: A. Chrysanthi, P. Murrieta Flores & C. Papadopoulos (eds.): Thinking Beyond the Tool. Archaeological Computing and the Interpretive Process. Archaeopress, Oxford (BAR International Series 2344), pp. 123-130.
2012 M. Zhou, I. Romanowska, Z. Wu, P. Xu and P. Verhagen (eds.). Revive the Past. Proceedings of the XXXIX Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, Beijing, 12-16 April 2011. Pallas Publications, Amsterdam.
2012 Y. Kondo, T. Omori and P. Verhagen. Developing predictive models for palaeoanthropological research: a preliminary discussion. Department of Computer Science , Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Technical Report TR12-0001).